Before Burning Man….there was Bread & Puppet

Zozobra_burning_2005In 1987, the first Burning Man appeared in the Nevada desert, an event that has now become a playground for rich hedonists looking to experience social freedom. However, the concept of burning effigies at the end of summer goes a bit deeper.

The longest-running burn ceremony in the USA may be Zozobra in Sante Fe, New Mexico, an event that began in 1924, although its origins lie in the Fiestas de Santa Fe that appeared 12 years after the Spanish retook that city back from a Pueblo Indian revolt of 1680. Today, the Kiwanis Club are in charge of Zozobra, though the objective (raise people’s spirits by dispelling negative energy) remains the same. For weeks leading up to the burn, residents write down gloomy thoughts on a piece of paper and place those thoughts inside a box burned at the feet of the marionette.

I’ve never been to Burning Man or Zozobra. The only major burn along these lines I attended happened in the early 1980’s, in Glover, Vermont, site of the once-annual Domestic Resurrection Circus staged by Peter Schumann’s amazing Bread & Puppet Theater.

My beautiful pictureLike Humboldt County in Northern California, Northern Vermont became a refuge for hippies in the 1970s, and Peter Schumann was a puppet master from Eastern Europe who settled first in Germany, then relocated to the Lower East Side of New York, before migrating to Glover. He landed on the site of a former gravel quarry and transformed it into a giant outdoor venue where tens of thousands could watch puppet spectacles involving a cast of hundreds of volunteers and dozens of giant puppets. The Domestic Resurrection Circus took place for many years, but after the event started to get really big, Schumann shut it down, and scaled back to smaller weekly performances during the summer instead of one big annual blow-out.

Peter_Schuman_Bread_PuppetThe Domestic Resurrection Circus was free to attend and you were allowed to camp-out and even vend near the property. As you entered the quarry, you arrived first at a crude, hand-built hut serving free bread slathered in garlic and oil. This was some really delicious bread, the sort you could actually live on. Schumann would get up each morning and bake hundreds of loaves using just water, wheat and freshly ground rye berries, plus a splash of his sourdough starter handed down from his mother. Schumann understood well the primal symbolism involved in providing nourishment for free.

Although Schumann’s script changed every year, the basic outline was always the same: A happy village lived in harmony under the shadow of a nourishing Mother Earth until the day an evil tribe entered the village, usually with gas-guzzling chain saws and other instruments of destruction. Before long, Mother Earth is going up in flames and the bad guys end up killing themselves in the process. But then these enormous white birds appear on the horizon. The birds fly around the burning Mother Earth to help raise her from the ashes.

Schumann’s annual performance was always intensely political, anti-war and anti-big-business. And there was something truly epic and profound about staging such massive events for free.

My beautiful picture



13 thoughts on “Before Burning Man….there was Bread & Puppet

  1. Correction: You were not allowed to camp or vend on the property of Bread & Puppet Theater. All camping and vending took place on neighboring land. These areas adjacent to the actual performances took on a life of their own, with many people spending more time in the campsites than at the shows. That was part of the reason that the annual event came to an end, and was restructured in the current weekly version.


    • Thanks for that correction Alicia, I knew there were campers and vendors nearby, but I didn’t know the rules. I’d heard there was a death in the campground one year and that’s why Peter shut down the big show.


    • Alicia, you are correct. The Circus finally shut down when someone was stabbed and died in one of the adjoining campgrounds. Although I had attended for many years and was, like many others, disappointed by it, I know that the spirit of B&P had been supplanted by the “happening” and the drugs, alcohol and commercial distractions that had grown up around it.


  2. There was a death in the campground and that was part of the reason they shut down the event. It was getting out of control with lots of people coming who had no interest in the actual show. Its a shame as the main event was a great time, I had been going for years. The smaller events they do over the summer are fantastic and more in line with the community they intended on creating.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. My husband grew up going to Bread & Puppet and has been inspired to make large scale mâché puppets over the years. We live in the Midwest and hadn’t been in 20 years, since they totally changed the event. We were there last month for the circus and pageant. It was different, smaller, but just as wonderful and magical. We introduced our kids to it. Peter Schumann was still there serving bread, directing with horns, no longer on giant stilts, but making political statements just as important today as ever.


  4. A young man was punched in the head during the night festivities. He retreated to his tent. He did not wake up, sadly, and was found dead toward morning.


  5. My young family and our tribe enjoyed B&P for many years. My experience is that the atmosphere changed radically when the Phish heads arrived. B&P was a half-way point between their NY and Maine shows; the heads brought hard drugs and never got into the gentle, creative spirit of B&P. Truly a loss that the weekends ended, and a tragedy that a local man died. We are grateful that B&P continues to this day with shows on Sundays during the summer, plus their incredible traveling circus.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s